ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

ADHD is a behavioral & neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, & impulsivity, which are pervasive, impairing

ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age inappropriate.

Some individuals with this also display difficulty regulating emotions, or problems with executive function. For a diagnosis, the symptoms have to be present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, work, or recreational activities). In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.

Additionally, it is associated with other mental disorders and substance use disorders. Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many people with this have sustained attention for tasks they find interesting or rewarding, known as hyperfocus.

Symptoms

ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

Many people with ADHD have problems that fall into both these categories, but this is not always the case.

For example, around 2 to 3 in 10 people with the condition have problems with concentrating and focusing, but not with hyperactivity or impulsiveness.

This form of ADHD is also known as attention deficit disorder (ADD). ADD can sometimes go unnoticed because the symptoms may be less obvious.

ADHD is more often diagnosed in boys than girls. Girls are more likely to have symptoms of inattentiveness only, and are less likely to show disruptive behaviour that makes ADHD symptoms more obvious. This means girls who have ADHD may not always be diagnosed.

ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

  • Symptoms in children and teenagers :

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well defined, and they’re usually noticeable before the age of 6. They occur in more than 1 situation, such as at home and at school.

Children may have symptoms of both inattentiveness and hyperactivity and impulsiveness, or they may have symptoms of just 1 of these types of behaviour.

ADHD Stands for

  • A  :  Attention
  • D  :  Deficit
  • H :   Hyperactivity 
  • D :   Disorder

Prevention

ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

Though there is no way to prevent ADHD, there are ways to help all children feel and do their best at home and at school.

Can good prenatal care help to prevent ADHD ?

Complications of pregnancy are linked to ADHD. You can increase the chance of your child not having ADHD by staying healthy throughout your pregnancy. A healthy diet and regular doctor visits are important. So is avoiding the use of alcohol and drugs.

Children whose mothers smoked while they were pregnant are twice as likely to develop ADHD. Some studies suggest a pregnant woman’s exposure to lead, as well as lead exposure in early childhood, may be linked to ADHD. Other studies are exploring the possible connection between premature birth and ADHD.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis in children and teenagers :

Diagnosing ADHD in children depends on a set of strict criteria. To be diagnosed with this, your child must have 6 or more symptoms of inattentiveness, or 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

To be diagnosed with ADHD, your child must also have :

  • been displaying symptoms continuously for at least 6 months
  • started to show symptoms before the age of 12
  • been showing symptoms in at least 2 different settings – for example, at home and at school, to rule out the possibility that the behaviour is just a reaction to certain teachers or to parental control
  • symptoms that make their lives considerably more difficult on a social, academic or occupational level
  • symptoms that are not just part of a developmental disorder or difficult phase, and are not better accounted for by another condition

Diagnosis in adults :

ADHD: symptoms, stands for, prevention,diagnosis,detect

Diagnosing ADHD in adults is more difficult because there’s some disagreement about whether the list of symptoms used to diagnose children and teenagers also applies to adults.

In some cases, an adult may be diagnosed, if they have 5 or more of the symptoms of inattentiveness, or 5 or more of hyperactivity and impulsiveness, listed in diagnostic criteria for children.

For an adult to be diagnosed, their symptoms should also have a moderate effect on different areas of their life, such as:

  • underachieving at work or in education
  • driving dangerously
  • difficulty making or keeping friends
  • difficulty in relationships with partners

If your problems are recent and did not occur regularly in the past, you’re not considered to have ADHD. This is because it’s currently thought that this cannot be develop for the first time in adults.

Detection

Can be detected as early as four years old. 

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